Are nuclear-powered submarines a problem in Southeast Asia?

Are nuclear-powered submarines a problem in Southeast Asia? – Policy Forum

MOHD HAZMI MOHD RUSLI

ENVIRONMENT & ENERGYINTERNATIONAL RELATIONSNATIONAL SECURITY | AUSTRALIAASIASOUTHEAST ASIA

27 MAY 2022

Malaysia and Indonesia are caretaker states to some of the world’s most crucial sea lines of communication, but moves toward nuclear-powered submarines could cause chaos if left unregulated, Mohd Hazmi Mohd Rusli writes.

As Asia’s economies continue to grow, the Straits of Malacca and the seas around Singapore are becoming more and more constricted, increasing the risk of collisions, congestion, and other hazards.

The Sunda Strait in Indonesia for example contains many hazards, including sandbank formations, a live volcano, and numerous oil drilling platforms, as well as small islands and reefs which may disrupt safe navigation.

In addition, the South China Sea is littered with abandoned oil rigs, some at depths of up to 100 meters, and other undersea obstacles.

The Southeast Asian Sea Lines of Communication (SLOCs) are an important marine highway for the world’s trade and military superpowers, including China, Russia, and the United States, and international law does not permit Indonesia or Malaysia to hamper or obstruct foreign vessels in the area.

This includes passage of nuclear-powered vessels and submarines – but should it?

The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, took to the oceans back in 1955.

Today, more nations posses nuclear-powered submarines. It is estimated that China is in possession of 12 nuclear submarines, Russia 29, the United Kingdom 11, France 8, and India one. The American military still tops the chart though, with a fleet of over 60 nuclear-powered submarines.

Several other countries including Argentina, Brazil, and Australia have ongoing plans to use nuclear-powered submarines. Through the tripartite security pact between Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, dubbed ‘AUKUS’, Australia is projected to possess its own nuclear-powered submarines in the next two decades.

This would indicate that the number of nuclear-powered vessels traversing the congested Southeast Asian SLOCs will increase in years to come. But is this a positive trend?

Nuclear submarines are not without risk. There are at least nine sunken submarines in the world’s oceans. When they are nuclear powered, submarines contain large amounts of radioactive fuel and waste eventually leaks into the surrounding marine environment, affecting it permanently.

For instance, the K-278, a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine sank into the bottom of the Norwegian Sea in 1989 after it caught fire. A joint 2019 expedition found it was leaking hundreds of thousands of times the normal radiation levels.

Radioactive waste in the ocean can affect global fish migration, fisheries, human health, and ecological security.

Thus far, there has never been a serious maritime accident involving nuclear-powered submarines within Southeast Asian waters, but last year’s incident involving an American nuclear-powered submarine running into an undersea mountain in the South China Sea should raise concerns that the area won’t remain accident-free for long.

The current Law of the Sea was drafted in the 1970s, when nuclear-powered submarines were not as common as they are today, and nuclear-powered vessels pose more risk compared to conventional non-nuclear-powered ships.

Limiting nuclear submarines in Southeast Asia can lower the risk of a mishap in one of the world’s most crucial maritime spaces. In order to protect their interests as coastal states and take responsibility for their neighbourhood’s ecological wellbeing, Malaysia and Indonesia should come up with a proposal that limits the navigation of nuclear-powered submarines.

deneme bonusu veren siteler deneme bonusu
betoffice betoffice
hentai anime sex von teenager auf xvix.eu
tovuti mtandaoni yenye picha za xx na ngono ya watu wa rangi tofauti kati ya mwanamume mweusi na mwanamke mweupe
tovuti bure mtandaoni na video za ngono amateur na hardcore ngono
ilmainen sivusto verkossa englanti hentai fetish seksivideolla ja intohimoisella pillua nuolemalla
สาวเอเชียออกเดทออนไลน์และร่วมเพศในป่าบนเว็บไซต์ลามกที่ดีที่สุด teensexonline.com
online site of dr doe porn video where the big tits doctor get fucked deep in mouth and pussy
most hardcore amateur interracial sex videos with women that get drilled deep in ass and pussy
noe som gir en fantastisk blow job fanget
bure ngono tovuti ngono na Interracial Porn Video Kwa Kura ya kutomba Horny
ฟรีผู้หญิงออกเดทออนไลน์เพื่อร่วมเพศทางปากและมีเพศสัมพันธ์ทางปากเช่นเดียวกับการอมลึกคอหอย
trang web hẹn hò trực tuyến nơi người đàn ông trưởng thành đụ cô gái còn trinh trong âm hộ ướt át và chặt chẽ của cô ấy
enjoy the most exciting amateur blowjob deepthroat with balls licking and rimming
pornhd.mobi

istanbul izmir şehirler arası evden eve nakliyat

istanbul izmir evden eve nakliyat

istanbul bodrum evden eve nakliyat

istanbul fetihye evden eve nakliyat

bodrum evden eve nakliyat

istanbul izmir şehirler arası evden eve nakliyat

istanbul izmir evden eve nakliyat

istanbul bodrum evden eve nakliyat

istanbul fetihye evden eve nakliyat

bodrum evden eve nakliyat

deneme bonusu deneme bonusu veren siteler
İstanbul İzmir nakliyat İstanbul İzmir evden eve nakliyat ümraniye evden eve nakliyat ümraniye nakliyat kağıthane evden eve nakliyat kağıthane nakliyat çekmeköy nakliyat çekmeköy evden eve nakliyat
deneme bonusu veren siteler deneme bonusu
1win 1win 1win melbet megapari megapari
Ankara Escort
https://vi.djav.org/video/bộ-ngực-to-lớn-hấp-dẫn-trẻ-sơ-sinh-đột-quỵ-và-bị-say-212.html
https://he.xvix.eu/
https://fr.xnxxporns.com/search/spangbang/
https://bestporn2022.com/search/teamstee/
https://de.bestporn2023.com/search/pirnhub/
https://fi.bigassmonster.com/search/tiukka+pillu/
https://sw.only-brunettes.com/video/kuna-kazi-ya-kupuliza-ambayo-inaongoza-kwa-kutombana-kwa-punda-kwa-nyota-moto-wa-kuchekesha-na-ngono-ya-vijana-curvy-lena-paul-huku-matumbo-yake-makubwa-yakidunda-kwa-mkundu-mgumu.-1173.html
https://vi.onlyteens.porn/video/chị-kế-còn-trinh-của-tôi-yêu-cầu-tôi-ăn-âm-hộ-của-cô-ấy-nhưng-tôi-đã-bóp-nát-âm-hộ-của-cô-ấy-1864.html
https://vi.teensexonline.com/video/một-phụ-nữ-trẻ-gợi-cảm-tự-quan-hệ-và-rung-âm-hộ-của-mình-mạnh-hơn-bằng-máy-rung.-514.html
betforwardperir.xyz betforward-shart.com betforward.com.co 1xbete.org 1xbet-ir1.xyz 1xbet-1xir.com takbetir2.xyz yasbetir1.xyz 1betcart.com 1kickbet1.com 4shart.com hattrickbet1.com hazaratir.com winbet-bet.com manotobet.net betfa.cam 2betboro.com
evden eve nakliyat
kazansana
https://www.fapjunk.com https://pornohit.net